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The Mason–Dixon Conference is a defunct NCAA Division II (former NCAA College Division) athletics conference, formed in 1936 and disbanded in October 1978. A track championship bearing the conference's name continued for several years after the demise of the all-sports league. Its members were predominantly from states bordering the eponymous Mason–Dixon line. A similarly named Mason-Dixon Athletic Conference began play in NCAA Division II men's basketball in 1983–84 with three of the previous members (Mount St. Mary's University, Randolph–Macon College, University of Maryland–Baltimore County) plus Longwood University, Liberty University and the University of Pittsburgh at Johnstown.

Originally for track and field only, it was established in 1936 by Waldo Hamilton and Dorsey Griffith who both coached the sport at Johns Hopkins University and The Catholic University of America respectively. Its main purpose was to provide an annual championship meet for smaller colleges. The circuit began with nine member schools. Besides the institutions for which the founders represented, the others were American University, Gallaudet University, Randolph–Macon College, University of Baltimore, University of Delaware, Washington College and Western Maryland College.

Within four years it began to include other sports. Men's basketball was added in 1940. The Mason–Dixon Conference sought to "solidify small college athletics and to stimulate a competitive spirit."

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