Basketball Wiki
Vince Carter
Vince Carter March 2013
Carter in March 2013.
No. 15, 25
Position: Small Forward / Shooting Guard
League: NBA
Personal information
Full name: Vincent Lamar Carter Jr.
Born: January 26, 1977 (1977-01-26) (age 47)
Daytona Beach, Florida
Nationality: Flag of the United States American
Physical stats
Listed height: 6 ft 7 in (2.01 m)
Listed weight: 220 lbs (100 kg)
National Basketball Association career
Debut: 1998 for the Toronto Raptors
Final game: 2020 for the Atlanta Hawks
Career information
High school: Mainland High School
(Daytona Beach, Florida)
College: North Carolina (19951998)
NBA Draft: 1998 / Round: 1 / Pick: 5th
Selected by the Golden State Warriors
Playing career: 19982020 (22 years)
Career history
19982004 Toronto Raptors
20042009 New Jersey Nets
20092010 Orlando Magic
2010–2011 Phoenix Suns
20112014 Dallas Mavericks
20142017 Memphis Grizzlies
2017–2018 Sacramento Kings
20182020 Atlanta Hawks
Career highlights and awards
Men's basketball
Representing the Flag of the United States United States
Olympic Games
Olympic Gold Medal Gold 2000 Sydney
FIBA Americas Championship
Olympic Gold Medal Gold 2003 San Juan

Vincent Lamar Carter Jr. (born January 26, 1977) is an American former professional basketball player and current basketball analyst for ESPN.

He is 6 feet 7 inches (2.01 m) tall and plays both Shooting Guard and Small Forward, but has occasionally played Power Forward during the later part of his career. Carter is the only player in NBA history to play 22 seasons as well as play in four different decades (1990s, 2000s, 2010s, and 2020s). At 43 years old, he was the last active NBA player to have been born in the 1970s and last to have been drafted and played in the 1990s. Carter has been ranked as one of the greatest dunkers of all time.

A high school McDonald's All-American, Carter played college basketball for three years with the North Carolina Tar Heels and twice advanced to the Final Four of the NCAA Tournament. He was selected with the fifth overall pick in the 1998 NBA Draft by the Golden State Warriors, who traded him to the Toronto Raptors.

Carter emerged as a star in Toronto. He won the 1999 NBA Rookie of the Year Award and won the Slam Dunk Contest at the 2000 NBA All-Star Weekend. That summer, he represented the United States in the Summer Olympics, winning a gold medal. He entertained crowds with his leaping ability and slam dunks, earning nicknames such as "Vinsanity""Air Canada", and "Half Man, Half Amazing". In addition to his dunking prowess, he was a prolific three-point shooter, making the sixth most three-point field goals in league history. In December 2004, Carter was traded to the New Jersey Nets, where he continued to put up big numbers. Carter has also played for the Orlando MagicPhoenix SunsDallas MavericksMemphis GrizzliesSacramento Kings, and Atlanta Hawks. He received the Twyman–Stokes Teammate of the Year Award in 2016. Carter is an eight-time NBA All-Star.

Off the court, Carter established the Embassy of Hope Foundation, assisting children and their families in Florida, New Jersey, and Ontario. He was also recognized in 2000 as Child Advocate of the Year by the Children's Home Society, and he received the Florida Governor's Points of Light award in 2007 for his philanthropy in his home state.


Born in Daytona Beach, Florida, Carter is the son of Michelle and Vincent Carter Sr. His parents divorced when he was seven. His mother remarried at least twice.

Carter attended Mainland High School in Daytona Beach. He played football as a quarterback until a broken wrist in his freshman year forced him to switch to volleyball. In volleyball, he was named the Volusia County Player of the Year as a junior and averaged 24 kills per match; for comparison, none of his teammates averaged more than one. He was also offered a saxophone scholarship to attend Bethune–Cookman University in Daytona Beach.

He led Mainland's basketball team to its first Class 6A state title in 56 years, and was a McDonald's All-American basketball player in 1995.[1] After high school, Carter spent three seasons playing basketball at the University of North Carolina, before entering the 1998 NBA Draft. Carter enjoyed tremendous popularity during his initial years in the NBA, especially after showcasing his athletic abilities in the 2000 NBA Slam Dunk Contest, in which he competed alongside his third cousin[2] and then teammate Tracy McGrady. He took the newly franchised Toronto Raptors to new heights, as he helped lead the team to three consecutive playoff berths.

Collegiate career[]

In 1995, Carter began playing college basketball at North Carolina under Dean Smith and later, Bill Guthridge. During the 1997-1998 season, he was a member of new coach Bill Guthridge's successful "Six Starters" rotation with Antawn Jamison, Shammond Williams, Ed Cota, Ademola Okulaja, and Makhtar N'diaye. That season (his final college season), he averaged 15.6 points and 5.1 rebounds per game to go along with career averages of 12.5 points and 4.5 rebounds per game.[3]

Carter also became a pioneer of the internet during his collegiate career. In 1995, Carter became the second collegiate athlete, after teammate Shammond Williams, to have a website dedicated to him.[4]

NBA career[]

Toronto Raptors (1998–2004)[]

Vince Carter Raptors

Carter with the Raptors.

In 1998, Carter was drafted by the NBA's Golden State Warriors with the fifth overall pick, and then traded to the Toronto Raptors for Antawn Jamison, his college teammate and good friend.[5] His first agent was National Football League super agent William "Tank" Black who was later sent to prison in connection with money laundering and other charges. The Raptors had struggled in their first three years as a franchise. Carter was instrumental in leading the Raptors to their first-ever playoff appearance in 2000 before going on to lead them to a 47-win season and their first-ever playoff series win in 2001, advancing them to the Eastern Conference Semifinals. Carter's rookie season was the shortened 50-game 1999 season after the NBA locked out its players in 1998–99. Carter started almost every game for coach Butch Carter and eventually won the NBA Rookie of the Year Award.[6] The next year, Carter was selected to an All-Star Team for the first time, averaged 25.7 ppg, made the Third Team All-NBA, and showcased his athleticism and dunking abilities in the 2000 NBA Slam Dunk Contest. He won the contest by performing an array of dunks including a 360° windmill, a between the legs bounce dunk, and an "elbow in the rim" dunk (also known as a "cookie jar" dunk or the "honey dip")."[5] Though he never competed in the dunk contest again for safety purposes, Carter was voted into the Eastern Conference NBA All-Star Team starting lineup several times through fan balloting.[7]

In Carter's first two seasons, he and his distant cousin Tracy McGrady formed a formidable one-two punch as Raptor teammates. The two led the Raptors to their first playoff berth in the 2000 NBA Playoffs, but they were swept by the New York Knicks in 3 games. Upon McGrady's departure to the Orlando Magic the following season, Carter became the Raptors' franchise player.

In 2000-01, his third season, Carter averaged a career-high 27.6 ppg, made the Second Team All-NBA, and was voted in as a starter in the 2001 NBA All-Star Game, while the Raptors finished the regular season with a franchise-record 47 wins. In the playoffs, the Raptors beat the New York Knicks 3–2 in the first round and advanced to the Eastern Conference Semifinals to face off against the Philadelphia 76ers. Carter and 76ers star Allen Iverson both dominated in a seven-game series that see-sawed back and forth. Carter scored 50 points in Game 3 and set an NBA playoff record for most three-point field goals made in one game. As the Sixers and Raptors increased their double team pressures on Carter and Iverson respectively, Carter missed a potential game-winning shot with 2.0 seconds remaining. Iverson said of the series in July 2011: "It was incredible. (Carter) had great games at home and I had some great games at home, but both of us were just trying to put our teams on our back and win basketball games. It is great just having those memories and being a part of something like that."

On the morning of the day of the Game 7, May 20, 2001, Carter attended his University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill graduation.[8] In that game, Carter missed a game-winning shot with 2.0 seconds remaining.[9] and shot just 6 of 18 from the field.[10]

In the summer of 2001, Carter signed a $94-million, six-year extension with the Raptors worth as much as $94 million.[11] In addition, Carter announced that he would be hosting a charity basketball game featuring fellow NBA stars that would be played at the Air Canada Centre in Toronto on August 3, 2001. The success of the first game encouraged Carter to make the game an annual summer event.

The next season was an injury-riddled one for Carter. He started in 60 games and he averaged 24.7 points per game. He was voted in the 2002 NBA All-Star Game, but he couldn't participate due to injury. The Raptors did not fare well without their All-Star player. The team lost 17 of 18 games to drop to 30-38, then won 12 of their last 14 to finish at 42-40. Carter was injured during the 2002 Playoffs and his team was beat by the Pistons.

Following off-season surgery, Carter only managed 43 games during the 2002–03 season. In February 2003, Carter gave up his starting spot in the 2003 NBA All-Star Game to Washington Wizards' Michael Jordan to allow Jordan to make his final start as an All-Star. Carter played in 73 games during the 2003–04 season, but the Raptors fell three games short of making the playoffs.[12]

During his Raptors tenure, Carter developed jumper's knee[13] in his left knee.

Trade to the Nets[]

During the 2004 off-season, general manager Glen Grunwald and the entire coaching staff were fired following the team's failure to reach the playoffs. Carter became frustrated with the Raptors' upper management, particularly Maple Leaf Sports & Entertainment (MLSE) and Raptors president Richard Peddie. In a private meeting, Peddie reassured Carter that MLSE was serious in building a contender in Toronto. Carter was also given the impression that Peddie would consider Julius Erving[14], who arrived at Pearson Airport and never set foot at the Air Canada Centre for a legitimate meeting. However, it was later disclosed that Erving was never really in the mix. Peddie instead hired Rob Babcock as general manager, whose first priority in rebuilding the Raptors was to "establish our philosophy", stating "we are not really worried about how many wins we get right away, or whether we make the playoffs within the first year or two. On November 22, 2004, when pressed by the local media about his lack of dunks, Carter sarcastically responded, "I don't want to dunk anymore. Dunking's overrated."[15] During his 2004-2005 season, Carter posted a 15.9-point scoring average on reduced playing time[16] before his eventual trade.

Consequently, much speculation arose over whether Carter wanted to be traded. The Toronto Sun reported that Carter felt misled and felt the Raptors would never be an elite team under the current MLSE structure with Peddie as Raptors president. Some fans raised money to fly a "Keep Vince, Trade Peddie" banner over the Air Canada Centre just before Carter's annual charity game. When Rob Babcock was questioned about the trade speculations, he denied Carter asked for a trade, but revealed Carter's agent had approached him with a trade request. On December 17, 2004, Carter was dealt to the New Jersey Nets for Alonzo Mourning, Aaron Williams, Eric Williams, and two first round draft picks.

In his first game back in Toronto, on April 15, 2005, Carter was heavily booed and jeered by Raptors fans; some fans burned Vince Carter jerseys, while many donned No. 15 baby bibs, 'FUVC' T-shirts, and other merchandise that labelled Carter as "Wince" or as "immature", alluding to Carter's knee and ankle injuries and his dissent. Carter would finish with 39 points in a 101–90 New Jersey victory. Carter continued to receive similar treatment for years to come in the town that once embraced him. Despite this, he thrived on many occasions in Toronto as a Net. On January 8, 2006 after a missed free throw by the Raptors, Carter hit a long three pointer at the other end with 0.1 seconds left to seal a 105–104 win to shock the Toronto crowd. Afterwards Carter, who finished with 42 points, referred to it among his greatest shots ever saying "That's definitely number one. The atmosphere, the emotion, the hostility in the arena, it was a fun game." On November 21, 2008, Carter's late game heroics sent the game into overtime where he would hit another game winner doing so on an inbounds alley-oop dunk with 1.5 seconds left in a 129–127 victory. Carter scored 39 points and regarding the continued booing he insisted he held no grudges to the fans "I know, deep down, that's just sports, that's the way it goes. I root for my team and I'm a terrible fan, also."

In November 2011, Carter, along with his cousin Tracy McGrady and Charles Oakley, addressed the Toronto audience in an interview on Off the Record with Michael Landsberg. When asked about being booed in Toronto, Carter said, "They watched myself and Tracy grow up. And when we left they still got to see (us) flourish and become (who we are). For me, I looked at it as, a young child growing up into a grown man and moving on. And I get it. Leaving, hurt a lot of people. It hurt me because I tell you what... I accomplished a lot, I learned a lot, I became the person and player of who I am today because of that experience, through the coaches, players, and everything else. I get it... but regardless I still love the city. I have friends there and my heart is still there because that's where it all started." Later in the interview, when asked about any words to the Toronto fans, Carter said, "I appreciate the fans and whether you cheer for me, boo me, or hate me, I still love you. Toronto's one of the best kept secrets... puts one of the best products on the floor and one of the top places to play in."

On November 6, 2012, in an interview with TSN Radio 1050, Carter reiterated his love for the city and his appreciation for the Toronto Raptors organization. The next day, Sam Mitchell and Rob Babcock revealed on Sportsnet 590, The Fan that the night before Carter was traded to New Jersey, Carter phoned Mitchell to express his desire to stay in Toronto and commit to their vision for the team. However, Babcock said it was too late and the trade had already been verbally agreed upon. Looking back on it, Mitchell feels he should have personally contacted the MLSE chairman, Larry Tanenbaum, but was reluctant because he did not want to break the chain of command.

Raptors general manager Masai Ujiri referred to Carter in April 2014 as "one of the symbols of the Toronto Raptors." To this day, Carter remains the Raptors' all-time leader in points per game with 23.4, having amassed 9,420 points during his 6+1⁄2-year run in Toronto.

On November 19, 2014, nearly a decade after the trade, as a part of the Raptors' 20th anniversary celebration, the team paid tribute to Carter with a video montage during the first quarter of the Raptors–Grizzlies game. Leading up to the game, questions were raised about how Raptors fans would receive the planned video tribute. As the sellout crowd watched the video tribute featuring highlights of Carter's high-flying Raptors days, what began as the usual booing turned into an overwhelmingly positive standing ovation. An emotional Carter used his warm-up shirt to wipe tears running down his face as he pointed to his heart and waved to the fans in appreciation. He later stated, "It was a great feeling, I couldn't write it any better."

New Jersey Nets (2004–2009)[]

Vince talking

Carter talks with a referee during a game with the Nets, January 2006.

Carter made it clear in the 2004 off-season that he wanted to be traded from the Raptors.[17]Carter was acquired by the New Jersey Nets on December 17, 2004, playing five seasons for them before departing in June 2009. Carter produced some of his highest numbers with the Nets, surpassing his 23.4 points per game with the Raptors to average 23.6 points per game over his tenure in New Jersey. He missed just 11 games in his four full seasons and helped lead the Nets to three straight playoff runs between 2005 and 2007.

Carter joined a Nets team with Jason Kidd and Richard Jefferson as the leading players. However, the trio never got to play together at full strength during the 2004–05 season. Carter and Kidd carried a shallow roster on a 15–4 run to end the season to make the playoffs.

In early January 2005, he stated during a television interview with TNT's John Thompson to not giving effort in his last months as a Raptor; when asked if he always played hard, Carter replied, "In years past, no. I was fortunate to have the talent. You get spoiled when you're able to do a lot of things. You see that you don't have to work at it."[18] Though Carter's comments were perceived by Raptors fans as his confession to not giving his all as a Raptor,[19] Thompson said the comments were misinterpreted, saying, "That boy never said to me, 'Coach, I just laid down and quit.' ...I was embarrassed and felt awful about it for his sake, because I knew what he was communicating to me. I think he was more expressing a desire of wanting to do better, as we all do."[20] Despite Thompson's defense, publications including Sports Illustrated, the Toronto Star and have included pieces condemning Carter for offering a lacklustre effort in his last season as a Raptor.[21][22] The Toronto Star's Dave Feschuk wrote that Carter "cheated on (the Raptors). He quit on the floor."[23], and Carter has been booed by Raptors fans each time he has returned to play Toronto as a New Jersey Net.[24]

Carter guided the Nets to an eighth seed in the 2005 NBA Playoffs.[25] Although New Jersey was swept in the first round by the Miami Heat,[26] Carter finished the series with averages of 26.8 points per game, 8.5 rebounds, and 5.8 assists;[16] highlighted by a buzzer-beating two-point fadeaway shot in the first overtime of Game 3 that forced a second overtime.[27]

Carter returned to Toronto on January 8, 2006 for the third time since his trade to the New Jersey Nets, and was given the same treatment by the fans that he received the first time he played against the Raptors in the Air Canada Centre.[28] With the Nets trailing 102–104, Carter hit the winning three-point shot with 0.1 seconds left on the game clock and finished with 42 points and 10 rebounds. Carter considers this winning shot as his greatest ever, considering the atmosphere, the emotion, and the hostility in the arena.[29]

In the 2005-06 NBA season, the Carter-Kidd duo co-led the Nets to 49 wins, an Atlantic Division title, and the No. 3 seed in the playoffs. Carter helped lead the Nets to the second round of the playoffs before losing to the eventual NBA champions Miami Heat in five games. Carter averaged 29.6 points, 7.0 rebounds, and 5.3 assists in 11 playoff games. Carter was named an Eastern Conference All-Star in 2006. On November 7, 2005, Carter threw down a very memorable dunk against the Miami Heat, over defensive stalwart, Alonzo Mourning. On December 23, 2005, Carter set an NBA record for the most free throws made in a quarter (4th quarter) with 16 against Miami. He tied his career-high of 51 points in the same game.

On February 1, 2007, Carter was named, along with teammate Jason Kidd, as a reserve to the 2007 NBA All-Star Game, after losing out on a starting spot to Gilbert Arenas by 3,010 votes.[30] Both Carter and Kidd made their eighth All-Star game appearance.[31]

In a 120–114 overtime win over the Washington Wizards, April 7, 2007, Carter and Kidd became the first teammates in over 18 years to record triple-doubles in the same game since the Chicago Bulls' Michael Jordan and Scottie Pippen achieved this feat against the Los Angeles Clippers in 1989. Carter finished with 46 points, a career-high 16 rebounds, and 10 assists. Kidd finished with 10 points, tied a career-high with 16 rebounds, and tied a season-high with 18 assists. Carter's triple double is the second highest total for a triple double, second only to Alvan Adams of the Phoenix Suns who tallied 47 points and 18 rebounds over 30 years ago.[32] Carter finished the 2006–07 season playing all 82 games, averaging over 25 points with a 21 PER.

After the Nets were eliminated from the playoffs by the eventual Eastern Conference champion Cleveland Cavaliers (lost series 4-2), rumors of the Nets trading Carter again arose. After the New York Knicks and Nets discussed a trade around February of Carter (which was ended with the trading deadline), the two teams again revisited the subject. Carter, who opted out of his contract on June 30, reportedly wanted a three-year, $60 million deal, however, which the Knicks are wary of. On July 1, 2007, Carter signed a 4-year $61.8 million contract with the Nets.[33] During the 2007–08 season, Kidd was traded back to the Dallas Mavericks. Carter was credited for becoming a leader following the All-Star break.

On January 24, 2008, the Nets played on the road against the Golden State Warriors. The game was broadcast on TNT, and at the half-time show, Magic Johnson claimed that Carter's game was on the decline due to chronic injuries to his knees.[34] This was proven to be unfounded as Carter had hurt his ankle in an October game against the eventual champion Boston Celtics which would hinder him throughout the 2007-2008 season. Hampered by injuries, Carter was not named as one of the reserves for the 2008 NBA All-Star Game.[35] This marked the first time in his NBA career that Carter was not named as an All-Star since his rookie season, when the game was canceled due to the NBA lockout. Despite playing with an ankle injury, Carter finished the season strong with averages of 22.7 points, 6.6 rebounds, and 5.1 assists after the All-Star break. [36] He was one of only three NBA players, along with LeBron James and Kobe Bryant, to average at least 21 points, 6 rebounds, and 5 assists for the year, with averages of 21.3 points, 6.0 rebounds, and 5.1 assists per game. He led the Nets in free throw percentage, assists, and steals per game (81.6%, 5.1, 1.2). [37] Rod Thorn credited Carter for becoming a leader since the All-Star break, and said he believed that Carter could lead the Nets back to the playoffs the following year.[38] Carter's injury was confirmed after undergoing a successful arthroscopic ankle surgery in the off-season.[39]

For the 2008-09 season, Carter was voted team captain, a title that had been given to Jason Kidd for the previous 6 years.[40] On November 21 2008, in a return to Air Canada Centre to play the Toronto Raptors, Carter scored a season-high 39 points in an overtime 129-127 win after coming back from an 18-point deficit. After making a three to send the game into overtime, he scored the winning basket, a reverse dunk off an inbounds pass from Bobby Simmons, with 2.1 seconds left.[41] On February 3, 2009, Carter recorded his fifth career triple-double with 15 points, 12 assists and 10 rebounds in a 99–85 win over the Milwaukee Bucks.

Orlando Magic (2009–2010)[]

Vince carter magic v raptors

Carter with the Magic performs a layup against the Raptors, November 2009.

On June 25, 2009, the day of the NBA Draft, Carter was traded to his hometown-team, the Orlando Magic along with Ryan Anderson in exchange for Rafer Alston, Tony Battie, and Courtney Lee. Orlando hoped that Carter would provide Center Dwight Howard with a perimeter scorer who can create his own shot—something that the Magic had lacked when they were defeated in the 2009 NBA Finals by the Los Angeles Lakers. The Nets without Carter ended up going with the worst 12-70 record. Carter made his season debut with the Magic on October 28, 2009 against the Philadelphia 76ers at home, recording 15 points and 2 assists to help the Magic defeat the Sixers. On February 8, 2010, Carter scored a season-high 48 points in a 123-117 win against the New Orleans Hornets, including 34 points in the second half to help rally the Magic back from a 17-point deficit. Carter helped the Magic reach the Eastern Conference Finals, where they were defeated 4–2 by the Boston Celtics. This was the only time that Carter played in a Conference Finals series.

Phoenix Suns (2010–2011)[]

Vince Carter Kobe Bryant

Carter (next to Kobe Bryant) playing for the Suns.

On December 18, 2010, Carter was traded to the Phoenix Suns along with Marcin Gortat, Mickael Pietrus, a 2011 first-round draft pick, and $3 million, for Hedo Türkoğlu, Jason Richardson, and Earl Clark. When asked how he felt about being traded from Orlando, Carter replied, "They gave me an opportunity to play at home and they felt it was time to go in a different direction. You can't be mad about that. They've given me an opportunity to play somewhere else and still chase that dream." On January 17, 2011, Carter recorded 29 points and 12 rebounds in a 129–121 win over the New York Knicks. He reached 20,000 career points during the game, becoming the 37th NBA player to reach that plateau. Although the back-court pairing of Carter and Steve Nash was successful together, the Suns ultimately missed the playoffs as they were in midst of a rebuilding phase.

On December 9, 2011, following the conclusion of the NBA lockout, Carter was waived by the Suns, meaning the team only had to pay him $4 million of the $18 million he was due for the 2011–12 season. Carter appeared in 51 games with 41 starts, averaging 13.5 points while shooting 42 percent.

Dallas Mavericks (2011–2014)[]

Vince Carter Dallas Mavericks

Carter with the Mavericks in October 2012.

On December 12, 2011, Carter agreed to sign with the defending champion Dallas Mavericks for a 3 year deal (two of which are not guaranteed), to reunite with former New Jersey teammate Jason Kidd. On April 20, 2012, against the Golden State Warriors, Carter became the eighth player in NBA history with 1,500 3-pointers when he made one in the closing minutes.

While known early on in his career for his circus dunks, Carter became known for his 3-point shooting with the Mavericks. On February 13, 2013, in a 123–100 win over the Sacramento Kings, Carter scored 26 points to pass Larry Bird on the NBA's career scoring list, moving him into 29th place. Carter turned aside a Sacramento rally in the third quarter by going 5 of 7 from long range and scoring 17 of Dallas' last 21 points in the period. He ended the night with 21,796 career points for 29th on the all-time list, five ahead of Bird. He also became the 11th NBA player with at least 1,600 3-pointers. He finished the season ranked 27th on the NBA's all-time scoring list with 22,223 career points. His 162 3-pointers tied his career high for 3s made in a season (162-of-397, .408, with Toronto in 2000–01). Over the course of the season, he advanced from 17th place to 11th place on the NBA's all-time 3-point field goals made list (passing Nick Van Exel, Tim Hardaway, Eddie Jones, Glen Rice, Jason Richardson, and Kobe Bryant), finishing the year with 1,663 career 3-pointers.

Prior to the 2013–14 season, Carter established himself as the Mavericks' sixth man, after the departure of Jason Terry. He averaged just 10.5 points and shot 37.6% from the field during the first 22 games of the season due to increased responsibilities and pressure to be the team's lone scoring punch off of the bench. He saw his numbers improve in December, averaging 12.5 points and shooting 44.3% from the field during an 18-game stretch. On March 16, 2014, against the Oklahoma City Thunder, Carter raised his career total to 23,010 points, becoming the 27th NBA player to pass the 23,000-point mark with a 3-pointer with 2:17 left in the third quarter. In Game 3 of the Mavericks' first-round playoff series against the San Antonio Spurs, Carter drilled the game-winning 3-pointer with no time remaining on the clock to give the eighth-seeded Mavericks a 109–108 win and a 2–1 series edge over the top-seeded Spurs. However, the Mavericks went on to lose the series to the eventual champion in seven games.

Memphis Grizzlies (2014–2017)[]

Vince Carter with Magic

Carter during Grizzlies practice in April 2017.

On July 12, 2014, Carter signed a multi-year deal with the Memphis Grizzlies. On November 13, 2014, he made a game winning alley-oop assist from the sideline to teammate Courtney Lee at the buzzer to win the game 111–110 over the Sacramento Kings. On December 17, 2014, Carter scored a season-high 18 points in a 117–116 triple overtime win over the defending champion San Antonio Spurs. Carter moved into 25th in all-time NBA scoring during the game, passing Robert Parish (23,334).

2015–16 season[]

Carter appeared in just one of the Grizzlies' first 12 games of the 2015–16 season. On February 24, 2016, with nine points scored against the Los Angeles Lakers, Carter passed Charles Barkley (23,757) for 24th in career points scored. Two days later, he scored a season-high 19 points in a 112–95 win over the Lakers. For the latter half of April and the whole first round playoff series against the Spurs, Carter was inserted in the starting lineup and played well. In Game 1 against the Spurs, Carter scored a team-high 16 points in a 106–74 loss. The Grizzlies went on to lose the series in four games. After finishing second behind Tim Duncan in the 2014–15 season, Carter was awarded with the Twyman–Stokes Teammate of the Year Award for the 2015–16 season. The award recognizes the player deemed the best teammate based on selfless play, on- and off-court leadership as a mentor and role model to other NBA players, and commitment and dedication to team.

2016–17 season[]

On November 1, 2016, Carter played in his 1,278th NBA game, tying him with A.C. Green for 25th on the NBA's career list. He also became the 24th player in NBA history to surpass 24,000 career points. On November 8, he scored 20 points against the Denver Nuggets and became the oldest player in the NBA to post a 20-point game since Michael Jordan scored 25 for the Washington Wizards in April 2003, at age 40. It was also Carter's first 20-point game since April 30, 2014. On November 12, Carter made seven field goals against the Milwaukee Bucks to pass Gary Payton (8,708) for 21st in NBA history. Carter also passed Charles Oakley for 24th on the NBA's career games played list with 1,283. On November 14, in a win over the Utah Jazz, Carter had his second 20-point game of the season, joining Michael Jordan and Patrick Ewing as the only players in NBA history to put up 20 points and 5+ rebounds off the bench at the age of 39, with Carter being the oldest at 39 years and 287 days. Carter missed seven games in early December with a right hip flexor strain. On January 11, Carter hit his 1,989th career three-pointer to move ahead of teammate Jason Kidd and into fifth on the all-time list. On February 1, in a game against the Denver Nuggets, Carter hit his 2,000th career three-pointer, making him only the fifth player to ever reach that mark. On February 6 against San Antonio, Carter joined Karl Malone, Dikembe Mutombo, Kareem Abdul-Jabbar, and Robert Parish as the only 40-year-old players to record at least four blocks in a game. On February 15, in a game against the New Orleans Pelicans, Carter passed Allen Iverson for 23rd on the NBA all-time scoring list. On March 13, Carter made his first start of the season and made all eight of his shots, including six from beyond the arc, to score a season-high 24 points and lead the Grizzlies past the Milwaukee Bucks 113–93. He became the first 40-year-old in NBA history to hit six triples in one game. At 40 years, 46 days old, Carter also became the oldest player to start an NBA game since Juwan Howard in April 2013. On March 29 against the Indiana Pacers, Carter passed Ray Allen for 22nd on the NBA all-time scoring list. In the Grizzlies' regular-season finale on April 12 against his former team the Dallas Mavericks, Carter played in his 1,347th game and passed Kobe Bryant for 13th in regular-season games played. On April 22, Carter became the first 40-year-old to make three or more 3-pointers in a playoff game during Game 4 of the Grizzlies' first-round series against the San Antonio Spurs.

Sacramento Kings (2017–2018)[]

Vince Carter with Sacramento

Carter with the Sacramento Kings in April 2018.

On July 10, 2017, Carter signed a one-year, $8 million contract with the Sacramento Kings. On August 18, 2017, during the Players Voice Awards, Carter was named by the NBA Players Association as the Most Influential Veteran. Carter missed seven games early in the season with a kidney stone. On December 27, 2017, Carter scored a season-high 24 points in a 109–95 win over the Cleveland Cavaliers. It was the first time in NBA history that a 40-plus-year-old reserve scored at least 20 points in a game. He shot 10-of-12 from the field in 30 minutes off the bench, with his 83 percent shooting marking the second highest percentage of his career. On January 28, 2018 against the San Antonio Spurs, Carter and Manu Ginóbili scored 21 and 15 points respectively; it was the first game in NBA history where two players over the age of 40 each scored at least 15 points. On March 19, 2018, in a 106–90 loss to the Detroit Pistons, Carter had seven points to move past Patrick Ewing into 22nd place on the NBA's career scoring list. At the season's end, he was named the recipient of the NBPA's Backbone Award and Most Respected Award, as part of the Players Voice Awards.

Atlanta Hawks (2018–2020)[]

2018–19 season[]

On August 24, 2018, Carter signed with the Atlanta Hawks. In his debut for the Hawks on October 17, 2018, Carter started at forward and scored 12 points in a 126–107 loss to the New York Knicks, becoming the second oldest player in NBA history to start a season opener at 41 years and 264 days old. Only Robert Parish (42 years and 65 days old) was an older opening-night NBA starter than Carter. On November 21, he scored 14 points off the bench in a 124–108 loss to the Toronto Raptors, thus becoming the 22nd player in NBA history to reach 25,000 career points. The milestone moment, which happened in the final seconds of the game, was made even more memorable for coming via a slam dunk and also for coming against his original team who joined in congratulating him on the court. On December 29, he scored an equal team-high 21 points in 111–108 win over the Cleveland Cavaliers. It was his first game with 20 points for Atlanta and became the oldest player in history to lead or tie for the team lead in scoring. He also became the oldest player in NBA history to score 20+ points at 41 years and 337 days old, breaking Kareem Abdul-Jabbar's record by 6 days. On February 7, 2019, in a 119–101 loss against the Toronto Raptors, Carter passed Jerry West for 21st on the NBA's all-time scoring list. On March 1, 2019, he logged the second-most minutes for the Hawks in a 168–161 quadruple-overtime loss to the Chicago Bulls. At 42, Carter became the oldest player in NBA history to play at least 45 minutes in a game. On March 4, he scored 21 points, all on 3-pointers, in a 114–113 loss to the Miami Heat. He thus surpassed Reggie Miller for 20th on the all-time scoring list, passed Jamal Crawford for sixth on the all-time 3-point field goals made list, became the oldest player to shoot seven 3-pointers, and broke his own record of being the oldest player to score 20+ points in a game at 42 years old. On March 31, against the Milwaukee Bucks, Carter passed Karl Malone for fifth place on the all-time games played list with his 1,477th game. 

2019–20 season[]

Vince Carter Hawks

Carter with Bruno Fernando playing for the Hawks.

In June 2019, Carter stated that he was planning to retire at the end of the 2019–20 season. On September 20, 2019, Carter re-signed with the Hawks and played his first game on October 24, 2019, making his 22nd season official. Four of Carter's teammates were born sometime after he was drafted in 1998. On December 10, 2019, he became the fifth player in NBA history to play at least 1,500 games. On January 4, 2020, during a 116–111 win over the Indiana Pacers, Carter became the only player in NBA history to have played in four different decades. On January 22, 2020, Carter moved past Alex English for 19th on the NBA all-time scoring list. On January 31, 2020, Carter moved up to 3rd place in all-time NBA games played with 1,523 passing Dirk Nowitzki in the process. On March 11, 2020 against the New York Knicks, Carter returned to the floor in the final seconds of a game, making a three in his final game. This game would end up being the last game of Carter's career due to the 2019–20 NBA season being suspended as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Carter officially announced his retirement from the NBA on June 25, 2020, over a month before the scheduled resumption of play on July 31 where the Hawks had not been invited to compete.

2000 Summer Olympics[]

Carter played for head coach Kelvin Sampson on the United States men's national under-19 team at the 1995 FIBA Under-19 Basketball World Cup in Athens. He and Samaki Walker tied for the team lead in blocks in the team's eight games.

During the 2000 Summer Olympics in Sydney, Carter performed a memorable dunk when he flew over 7-foot-2 (2.18 m) French Center Frédéric Weis. Carter stole the ball, sprinted, took off - legs spread in midair, and hit Weis's head as he bent over to avoid the collision, before slamming the ball. Teammate Jason Kidd said "It was one of the best plays I've ever seen." The French media later dubbed it "le dunk de la mort" ("the Dunk of Death").[42] The U.S. team went on to win the gold medal that year and Carter led the team with 14.8 points per game. Carter admitted he channeled his frustrations in his personal life and Tracy McGrady leaving the Raptors before the Olympics.

Carter replaced Kobe Bryant on the USA roster for the 2003 FIBA Americas Tournament while Bryant was undergoing surgeries on his knee and shoulder. He wore Bryant's jersey number 8. Bryant was supposed to take his spot back in time for the 2004 Olympics, but would later withdraw due to allegations of sexual assault. Carter was offered the Olympic spot, but chose instead to take time off during the summer to rest and heal, as well as to get married.

Other pursuits[]

Carter opened a restaurant named for himself in Daytona Beach in 2010. His mother operated the restaurant. They sold it in January 2017 for $4.3 million (equivalent to $4.8 million in 2021).

Carter signed a sponsorship deal with Puma prior to his first NBA season, and his first signature shoe, the Puma Vinsanity, was released. However Carter broke his contract with Puma prematurely, citing the "shoes were hurting his feet" and played out the rest of the 1999–2000 NBA season in various brands. Prior to the 2000 Summer Olympics, Carter signed with Nike as a 'signature athlete' and his first signature Nike Shox shoe, a Nike Shox BB4 PE, debuted and released publicly in 2000 to coincide with the Olympic games. Nike released five other signature Shox models bearing Carter's initials. During his final season, Nike commemorated Carter's 22 year NBA career by publicly re-releasing his first Nike signature shoe, the Shox BB4.

On September 17, 2020, ESPN announced that Carter had signed a multi-year contract with them, serving as an NBA and college basketball analyst

Awards and achievements[]

Carter is the only player in NBA history to appear in a game in four different decades. He is one of the six players in NBA history to average at least 20 points, 4 rebounds, and 3 assists per game in 10 straight seasons. He is also one of the six players in league history to record 24,000 points, 6,000 rebounds, 2,500 assists, 1,000 steals, and 1,000 3-point field goals.

NBA playoff records[]

  • Tied for NBA playoff record for most three-point field goals made in one game with 9 (May 11, 2001 vs. Philadelphia 76ers, Eastern Conference Semifinals)
  • Holds NBA playoff record for most three-point field goals made in one half with 8 (same game as above)
  • Holds NBA playoff record for most consecutive three-point field goals made in one game with 8 (same game as above)
  • Holds NBA playoff record for most consecutive three-point field goals made in one half with 8 (same game as above)[44]
  • First 40-year old player to hit at least three 3-pointers in a playoff game: 3 (April 22, 2017 vs. San Antonio Spurs, Western Conference 1st round)

New Jersey Nets franchise records[]

  • Holds for most three-point field goals made in one game with 9 (December 11, 2006 vs. Memphis Grizzlies)
  • Holds for most points scored in one season with 2,070 (2006-07)
  • Holds for most consecutive 20 or more point games with 23 (2005-06).
  • He is the first Net to score at least 2,000 points in a single season. (2006-07)[45]

Toronto Raptors franchise records and milestones[]

  • Holds for most points scored in one game with 51 (February 27, 2000 vs. Phoenix Suns)
  • Co-holds for most points scored in one quarter with 20 (November 7, 2001 vs. Golden State Warriors)
  • Co-holds for most field goals made in one game with 20 (January 14, 2000 vs. Milwaukee Bucks)
  • Holds for most points scored in a playoff game with 50 (May 11, 2001 vs. Philadelphia 76ers, Eastern Conference Semifinals)
  • Ranks 3rd for games played with 403
  • Ranks 1st for games started with 401
  • Ranks 1st for total points with 9,420
  • Ranks 1st for total minutes with 15,154
  • Ranks 2nd for three-pointers made with 554
  • Ranks 2nd for three-pointers attempted with 1,445[46]

Career highs[]

  • Points – 51 (2 times)
  • Field Goals Made – 20 vs. Milwaukee 01/14/00
  • Field Goals Attempted – 36 @ Philadelphia 01/21/01
  • Three Point Field Goals Made – 9 vs. Memphis 12/11/06
  • Three Point Field Goals Attempted – 20 vs. Memphis 12/11/06
  • Free Throws Made – 23 @ Miami 12/23/05
  • Free Throws Attempted – 27 @ Phoenix 12/30/00
  • Offensive Rebounds – 8 vs. Chicago 11/05/05
  • Defensive Rebounds – 13 (2 times)
  • Total Rebounds – 16 vs. Washington 04/07/07
  • Assists – 14 @ Milwaukee 01/09/09
  • Steals – 6 (3 times)
  • Blocks – 6 vs. Chicago 03/28/99
  • Minutes Played – 63 vs. Sacramento 02/23/01[16]

Video game and TV appearances[]

Personal life[]

Carter married Ellen Rucker, a chiropractor, in July 2004; the couple divorced in 2006. They have one daughter together. Carter is now married to Sondi Carter, an NASM trainer. They have a son and a daughter, Kai Michelle Carter,[49] born on June 1, 2005.[7]

Carter has donated to his high school, Mainland High School, and he established charitable foundation, The Embassy of Hope, upon being drafted into the NBA in 1998. On February 3, 2007, a statue of Carter was unveiled at Mainland.

Carter visited with the Duquesne University men's basketball team in Pittsburgh as a show of support after five of its players were shot in September 2006.

Carter is also the cousin of Tracy McGrady, who is a basketball player. They were teammates with the Raptors in 1998–2000. Both players were unaware of the relation until a family reunion in 1997.

NBA career statistics[]

  GP Games played   GS  Games started  MPG  Minutes per game
 FG%  Field goal percentage  3P%  3-point field-goal percentage  FT%  Free-throw percentage
 RPG  Rebounds per game  APG  Assists per game  SPG  Steals per game
 BPG  Blocks per game  PPG  Points per game  Bold  Career high

Regular season[]

1998–99 Toronto 50 49 45.2 .450 .288 .761 5.7 3.0 1.1 1.5 18.3
1999–00 Toronto 82 82 38.1 .465 .403 .791 5.8 3.9 1.3 1.1 25.7
2000–01 Toronto 75 75 39.7 .460 .408 .765 5.5 3.9 1.5 1.1 27.6
2001–02 Toronto 60 60 39.8 .428 .387 .798 5.2 4.0 1.6 .7 24.7
2002–03 Toronto 43 42 34.2 .467 .344 .806 4.4 3.3 1.1 1.0 20.6
2003–04 Toronto 73 73 38.2 .417 .383 .806 4.8 4.8 1.2 .9 22.5
2004–05 Toronto 20 20 30.4 .411 .322 .694 3.3 3.1 1.3 .8 15.9
2004–05 New Jersey 57 56 38.9 .462 .425 .817 5.9 4.7 1.5 .6 27.5
2005–06 New Jersey 79 79 36.8 .430 .341 .799 5.8 4.3 1.2 .7 24.2
2006–07 New Jersey 82 82 38.1 .454 .347 .802 6.0 4.8 1.0 .4 25.2
2007–09 New Jersey 76 72 38.9 .456 .359 .816 6.0 5.1 1.2 .4 21.3
2008–09 New Jersey 80 80 36.8 .437 .385 .817 5.1 4.7 1.0 .5 20.8
2009–10 Orlando 75 74 30.8 .428 .367 .840 3.9 3.1 .7 .2 16.6
2010–11 Orlando 22 22 30.2 .470 .346 .747 4.1 2.9 .9 .1 15.1
2010–11 Phoenix 51 41 27.2 .422 .366 .735 3.6 1.6 .9 .3 13.5
2011–12 Dallas 61 40 25.3 .411 .361 .826 3.4 2.3 .9 .4 10.1
2012–13 Dallas 81 3 25.8 .435 .406 .816 4.1 2.4 .9 .5 13.4
2013–14 Dallas 81 0 24.4 .407 .394 .821 3.5 2.6 .8 .4 11.9
2014–15 Memphis 66 1 16.5 .333 .297 .789 2.0 1.2 .7 .2 5.8
2015–16 Memphis 60 3 16.8 .388 .349 .833 2.4 .9 .6 .3 6.6
2016–17 Memphis 73 15 24.6 .394 .378 .765 3.1 1.8 .8 .5 8.0
2017–18 Sacramento 58 5 17.7 .403 .345 .757 2.6 1.2 .7 .4 5.4
2018–19 Atlanta 76 9 17.5 .419 .389 .712 2.6 1.1 .6 .4 7.4
2019–20 Atlanta 60 0 14.6 .352 .302 .793 2.1 .8 .4 .4 5.0
Career 1,541 983 30.7 .437 .374 .798 4.4 3.2 1.0 .6 16.7
All-Star 7 5 18.0 .477 .375 .600 2.6 1.9 .9 .1 10.1


2000 Toronto 3 3 39.7 .300 .100 .871 6.0 6.3 1.0 1.3 19.3
2001 Toronto 12 12 44.9 .436 .410 .784 6.5 4.7 1.7 1.7 27.3
2005 New Jersey 4 4 44.8 .365 .316 .861 8.5 5.8 2.3 .0 26.8
2006 New Jersey 11 11 40.9 .463 .241 .796 7.0 5.3 1.8 .5 29.6
2007 New Jersey 12 12 40.6 .396 .389 .693 6.8 5.3 .9 .6 22.3
2010 Orlando 14 14 34.4 .402 .235 .826 4.2 2.3 .9 .2 15.5
2012 Dallas 4 0 26.8 .293 .300 .750 5.5 .3 1.2 .5 8.3
2014 Dallas 7 0 27.1 .456 .484 .786 3.6 2.4 .4 .3 12.6
2015 Memphis 11 0 17.8 .403 .250 .889 4.3 1.0 .6 .2 6.3
2016 Memphis 4 4 22.8 .455 .700 1.000 3.8 1.3 .5 .3 11.3
2017 Memphis 6 6 32.5 .476 .400 1.000 3.3 1.5 .3 .0 9.2
Career 88 66 34.5 .416 .338 .796 5.4 3.4 1.1 .5 18.1


1995–96 North Carolina 31 19 17.9 .492 .345 .689 3.8 1.3 .6 .6 12.5
1996–97 North Carolina 34 34 27.6 .525 .336 .750 4.5 2.4 1.4 .8 17.0
1997–98 North Carolina 38 38 31.2 .591 .411 .680 5.1 1.9 1.2 .9 22.6
Career 103 91 26.0 .547 .368 .705 4.5 1.9 1.1 .8 18.3

Off the court[]

  • He has donated large amounts of money to his former high school, Mainland High School as well as to his foundation, The Embassy of Hope. On February 3, 2007, a statue of Vince Carter was unveiled at the school.[50]
  • Carter visited with the Duquesne University basketball team in Pittsburgh as a show of support after its shooting incident in September 2006.[51]
  • He sold his condo in Toronto to former Toronto Blue Jays' pitcher A.J. Burnett for $2.8 million. He took a loss of $700,000 due to all the upgrades. It's a 10-room luxury condo with sweeping views of Lake Ontario and Toronto's skyline in an exclusive building on Queens Quay.[52]
  • He is a member of the Omega Psi Phi fraternity, and displays the organization's hand signals on court.Template:Fact
  • When Carter joined the Nets, he lived in Saddle River, New Jersey, where he joined a bowling league in with then teammate Jason Kidd.[53]



  1. "McDonald's All American Alumni" (pdf). McDonald's. Retrieved 2007-04-18. 
  2. Sheppard, Robert (1999-04-26). "Raptors' Skywalker Cousins". Retrieved 2007-04-18. 
  3. Vince Carter, North Carolina
  4. Origin of the Blue Heaven Pages
  5. 5.0 5.1 Velasco, Dennis. "Vince Carter Player Profile". About Basketball. Retrieved 2007-04-18. 
  6. "Rookie of the Year". Retrieved 2007-04-18. 
  7. 7.0 7.1 "Vince Carter Info Page – Bio". Retrieved 2008-06-09. 
  8. "Carter gets his diploma". 2001-05-20. Retrieved 2007-10-09. 
  9. "Philadelphia Rapts Up Series With Toronto". 2001-05-20. Retrieved 2007-04-18. 
  10. "Toronto Raptors at Philadelphia 76ers, May 20, 2001". Retrieved 2007-10-07. 
  11. "SI's 2001-02 NBA Preview: Toronto Raptors". 2001-10-29. Retrieved 2007-04-18. 
  12. Zeisberger, Mike (2004-12-18). "Vince's wild ride". Retrieved 2007-04-18. 
  13. "Vince Carter out four weeks". 2007-11-22. Retrieved 2007-04-18. 
  14. ESPN - V.C. deserves a standing O - NBA
  15. "Raptors' Carter not dunking anymore". 2004-11-22. Retrieved 2007-04-18. 
  16. 16.0 16.1 16.2 "Vince Carter Info Page – Career Stats". Retrieved 2007-04-18. 
  17. "Vince Carter demands trade: report". 2004-09-17. Retrieved 2007-04-18. 
  18. "Ex-teammates surprised at comments". 2005-01-08. Retrieved 2007-04-18. 
  19. "How our love for Vince Carter turned to hate". 2007-04-20. Retrieved 2008-12-24. 
  20. BASKETBALL; For the Nets' Carter, A Personal Playoff Push - New York Times
  23. Feschuk, Dave (Apr 21 2007). "Conditions are there for Vince to break hearts". Toronto Star. 
  24. Zicarelli, Frank (December 16 2008). "Carter thrives on being villain". Toronto Sun. 
  25. "2004-05 Conference Standings". Retrieved 2007-04-18. 
  26. "HEAT: Playoff History 2005". Retrieved 2007-04-18. 
  27. "Miami Outlasts Nets in Thriller". 2005-04-28. Retrieved 2007-04-18. 
  28. "Clutch Carter Carries Nets to 10th Straight". 2006-01-08. Retrieved 2007-04-18. 
  29. "New Jersey Nets/Toronto Raptors Recap". Yahoo! Sports. 2006-01-08. Retrieved 2007-04-18. 
  30. "Arenas edges Carter for starting nod; LeBron is top pick". 2007-02-17. Retrieved 2007-04-18. 
  31. "Jason Kidd and Vince Carter named to 2007 Eastern Conference All-Star Team". Retrieved 2007-04-18. 
  32. "Kidd, Carter match feat not done since Jordan, Pippen in 1989". 2007-04-07. Retrieved 2007-04-18. 
  33. NY Post: Knicks Want Vince Carter - FanHouse - AOL Sports Blog
  34. Top 5 of Inside #1: Vince Carter's Decline., 2007-01-25. Retrieved on 2007-01-26.
  35. Two Hometown Hornets Named as Reserves for 2008 NBA All-Star Game., 2007-01-31. Retrieved on 2007-01-31.
  36. Vince Carter - New Jersey Nets - Split Statistics - NBA - Yahoo! Sports
  38. Rod Thorn views Vince Carter as playoff team leader for Nets
  39. NETS: All-Access Online: Carter Takes the Lead
  41. "Nets' Carter nets 39, hitting crucial 3, OT dunk to down Raptors". Associated Press. November 21 2008. 
  42. Hench, Kevin (2006-11-30). "Top 10 'Best Damn' dunks". Fox Sports (USA). Retrieved 2007-04-18. 
  43. "Vince Carter – NBA Players". Retrieved 2007-04-23. 
  44. "Playoff Records: 3-pt Field Goals – Game". Retrieved 2007-04-25. 
  45. "Nets Notes" (PDF). Retrieved 2007-04-25. 
  46. "Raptors Notes" (PDF). Retrieved 2007-04-25. 
  47. NBA Live 2004 cover art
  48. NBA Inside Drive 2002 cover art
  49. "About Vince – Biography". Retrieved 2008-06-09. 
  50. Mainland High School :: Listed Calendar. Retrieved on April 9, 2007.
  51. "NBA Star Visits Duquesne To Support Shooting Victims". 2006-09-26. Retrieved 2007-04-18. 
  52. "Vince Carter buys Toronto lakefront condo: report". 2001-05-26. 
  53. Iannazzone, Al. "Kidd, Carter bond thanks to bowling", The Record (Bergen County), October 22, 2005. Accessed May 8, 2007.

External links[]