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The Yankee Conference was a collegiate sports conference in the eastern United States. It once sponsored competition in many sports, but eventually became a football-only league. Although not under the same charter, it is essentially the ancestor of today's Colonial Athletic Association (CAA) football conference.

The Yankee Conference essentially was formed in 1938 as the New England Conference. The NCAA though considers the Yankee Conference and New England Conference to be two separate conferences. In 1947 the Yankee Conference was formed. In 1975 it dropped sponsorship of all sports except football. Over the years, many schools outside its original New England base joined the league.

It existed until 1997, when NCAA legislation limiting the influence of single-sport conferences over policy became effective, and then merged with the Atlantic 10 Conference (A10).

Institutions which were members of the conference at the time of its merger with the A10 were:

   * Boston University
   * University of Connecticut
   * University of Delaware
   * James Madison University
   * University of Maine
   * University of Massachusetts
   * University of New Hampshire
   * Northeastern University
   * University of Rhode Island
   * University of Richmond
   * Villanova University
   * The College of William & Mary

and former members

   * College of the Holy Cross (left after the 1971 football season)
   * University of Vermont (ceased fielding a football team after the 1974 season)